Species of Hummingbirds Canada by Province – Canada’s Fluttering Gems

In Canada, many species of hummingbirds can be observed in different provinces, allowing Canadians to keep these tiny wonders up close. Anna’s Hummingbird is a permanent resident in British Columbia, while the Rufous Hummingbird can be witnessed during the breeding season.

In Alberta, the Calliope Hummingbird can be seen in the southern parts of the province, and in Manitoba, the Ruby-throated Hummingbird is present during the summer months.

From the coastal regions of British Columbia to the eastern shores of Newfoundland and Labrador, these tiny avian species bring a touch of magic to the Canadian wilderness.

Some Common Hummingbird Species in Canada Province

These birds are a marvel, from the tiny, delicate, ruby-throated hummingbird to the large and colorful rufous hummingbird. There are many different species of hummingbirds in Canada, each unique.

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

In Canada, the Ruby-throated Hummingbird is one of the most common hummingbird species. It is found throughout the country and is the only species of hummingbird found in the province of Ontario.

The male has a bright ruby-red throat and white breasts, while the female has a light gray throat and a white breast. They feed on various flowers, including columbine, larkspur, lupine, and phlox.

Length:       7 to 9 cm

Wingspan:  8 to 11 cm

Weight:       3-4 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

Rufous Hummingbird

The tiny Rufous Hummingbird is one of the most common species of hummingbirds found in Canada. It can be found in the western provinces and the northern parts of Ontario and Quebec. These birds have a copper-colored back, a white throat and chin, and a green-tinted belly usually speckled with red.

Length:       7 to 9 cm

Wingspan:  Up to 11 cm

Weight:       2-5 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

Black-chinned Hummingbird

One of the most common hummingbird species in Canada is the Black-chinned Hummingbird. This species is found in western North America, from British Columbia and Alberta to the Mexican border.

Adults of this species have iridescent, dark greenish-black crowns, backs, and tails, with white spots on the tail feathers. The throat is rusty, with a black chin, and the underparts are whitish.

Length:       Up to 9 cm

Wingspan:  Up to 11 cm

Weight:       2.3-4.9 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

Broad-billed Hummingbird

It is a common species of hummingbird found in Canada’s provinces. This hummingbird species is characterized by its vibrant colors and small size, making it easily identifiable.

The Broad-billed Hummingbird has a dark green back and wings, with a light gray-white underside. It has a red throat, a white forehead, and a slightly curved bill that is gray at the base and black at the tip.

Length:       8-10 cm

Wingspan:  Up to 12.7 cm

Weight:       3-4 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

Anna’s Hummingbird

This is a common species of hummingbird found in the Canadian province of British Columbia. This hummingbird is easily identifiable by its green back, grey chest, and deeply forked tail. It is also characterized by a reddish-pink head and throat, slightly darker in males.

Length:       9.9 to 10.9 cm

Wingspan:  Up to 12 cm

Weight:       2.8-5.7 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

Calliope Hummingbird

One of the more common hummingbirds in Canada is the Calliope Hummingbird. It is the only species of hummingbird found in Canada and can be found in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario. It is easily distinguished by its bright green back, gray underparts, and reddish sides.

Length:       8 to 9 cm

Wingspan:  10.5 to 11 cm

Weight:       2.3-3.4 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

Costa’s Hummingbird

The majestic Costa’s hummingbird is a species native to the western United States and Mexico. It is also found in some parts of Canada, particularly British Columbia. It is a small, colorful species with a metallic green upper body and a white belly. Its wings are short and pointed, and its tail is forked.

Length:       Up to 9 cm

Wingspan:  Up to 11 cm

Weight:       2-3 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

Green Violet-ear

Canada is home to various hummingbird species, including the Green Violet-ear. This species is found in various habitats throughout Canada, ranging from open coniferous and deciduous woodlands to open pastures and gardens.

While they are not as common as some other species, they can be found in southern British Columbia, much of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southwestern Ontario, and parts of Quebec.

Length:       Up to 11-11.5 cm

Wingspan:  Up to 16 cm

Weight:       5-6 gm

Diet:            Nectar and insects

What Adaptations Do Hummingbirds Exhibit in Their Environment?

Hummingbirds, with their unique physique and lifestyle, have evolved a remarkable set of adaptations that allow them to thrive in their environment. These adaptations are specifically tailored to their hovering flight, high metabolic demands, and nectar-feeding diet.


Their wings are incredibly flexible, allowing them to rotate in a figure-eight pattern, generating lift in both the upstroke and downstroke. This adaptation grants them exceptional maneuverability and the ability to hover in mid-air, allowing them to precisely access nectar from flowers.


Hummingbirds possess a rapid heartbeat and high metabolic rate, enabling them to sustain their energy-intensive flight.

Beaks and Tongue

Their long, slender beaks and extendable tongues are perfectly designed for reaching deep into flowers to extract nectar, while their specialized brush-like tongues collect the sweet liquid efficiently.


Hummingbirds also have a unique ability to enter a state of torpor, slowing down their metabolism and conserving energy during periods of food scarcity or cold temperatures. These adaptations collectively contribute to the hummingbird’s survival, allowing them to excel in their environment and thrive in the face of the challenges they encounter.

What Do  Hummingbirds Consume?

Hummingbirds are renowned for their swiftness, vitality, and distinct physical structure, and sustaining their dynamic lifestyle necessitates a certain diet. Generally, nectar is the essential nutrient, though they also feed on bugs and sap from trees.


These avian species rely on nectar for sustenance, providing them with the necessary carbohydrates and energy to sustain their dynamic metabolisms. They can acquire nectar from various flowers, and their long, slender beak is ideally suited to extract the nectar from the flower’s petals.


Hummingbirds rely on nectar and insects as a source of sustenance, providing essential proteins, nutrients, and other necessary components to sustain life. Common insect prey for hummingbirds include spiders, gnats, and fruit flies.

Tree Saps

Certain species of hummingbirds can utilize tree saps as a nutritional source. These saps are rich in energy and sugar, and the birds’ sharp beaks can easily access them to penetrate the outer bark. This offers a dependable option when nectar is not readily available.

Hummingbirds spending the Winter season in British Columbia, Canada

Do All Species of Hummingbirds Eat Nectar?

All species of hummingbirds rely on nectar as their primary fuel source. With their unique long bills and tongues, hummingbirds are perfectly adapted to feed on nectar from flowers. Nectar offers them the necessary carbohydrates and energy to fuel their fast-paced flights and maintain their high metabolism. From the smallest to the largest, hummingbirds and nectar fuel go hand in hand.


Canada is home to a variety of hummingbird species that can be found throughout the provinces. With their vibrant plumage and remarkable hovering capabilities, these tiny birds are a source of awe for birdwatchers and nature lovers alike.

From British Columbia’s Anna’s Hummingbird to Manitoba’s Ruby-throated Hummingbird, every province has something unique to offer regarding hummingbird species. Understanding the different hummingbirds in Canada is an opportunity to gain an appreciation for our natural world’s complexity and diversity.

You must take steps to conserve these creatures’ habitats and provide them with the necessary resources to ensure their survival for future generations. By doing so, you can ensure that these stunning birds constantly remind us of nature’s beauty and importance.


  • https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/23-38%20OB%20Vol%2024%231%20Apr%202006.pdf
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443710/
  • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Trochilidae.html

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